Different methods have been introduced to manipulate metals into various shapes and sizes. These methods involve large scale melting and cutting of metal slabs and thick sheets of alloys like mild steel, stainless steel, etc. Metal and hard non-metal material cutting is not as easy as it may seem. It is a tricky business, that involve detailed research about properties of material to be cut, like its melting point, brittle property, thermal conductivity, etc.
Since industrial revolution and evolution of hypothesis for research, various machines have been designed for industrial cutting. Most common cutting machines incorporate plasma cutting technology and laser cutting technology. These technologies ensure safe cutting, less waste material, accuracy and efficiency.
Diamond Wire Cutting is one of the latest techniques, which involve diamondwire cables, that rub against the material to be cut and produce friction. This process was invented in 1980s and was developed and further refined during the following decade.
Diamond wires are actually a form of wire saw which works in similar way as one does abrasion to saw teeth. Mostly, diamond is used as an abrasive to cut hardest rocks, huge stones and large reinforced concrete structures. The process involves use of wires or cables that are coated with diamond abrasive. Unlike common perception, diamond wire cutting is not only cheaper, it is one of the most effective ways of reducing overall cost of production. Unlike mechanical methods, that damage material surface, thousands of dollars can be saved via diamond wire cutting as it gives clean cutting and leaves no material wasted. A thin wire, that is coated with diamond beads has huge frictional capacity.
The wire saw method for diamond cutting is powered through hydraulic motor. When the wheel starts to rotate, diamond wire automatically starts to move along the circular path. It works like a pulley, in which diamond cable is set on a defined cutting path on required material slab or block. The material is cut through frictional force that produce heat and cuts through any material slowly and steadily. The reason why diamond is used as beads on these cables is because diamond is purest form of carbon, which is the hardest rock ever known. Only diamond can cut diamond and other materials with less constructive strength. Diamond wire cutting produce minimal sub-surface and surface damage as it is the most gradual and gentle method for material cutting. It is highly suitable for stiff, delicate and brittle specimens like glass. The fact that diamond wire cutting ensures minimum material damage can be confirmed by kerf loss, which is highly dependent on cable diameter. Usually it is 0.25mm. Diamond discs are not suitable for cutting delicate material where one cannot afford any kind of damage.
The option of different cutting pressures helps a lot in cutting of fragile materials with minimum loss or damage. Furthermore, with the advent of careful processing techniques, any fracture or damage on costly materials can be eliminated easily. Speed control of wire cutting and quick configuration from wire to disc also helps a lot in cutting expensive materials with less surface and internal damage.